Internet of Things is the Internet technology that connects devices, machines, and tools to the internet using wireless network technologies.
There are more than 10 billion THINGS connect over the Internet. In the future, there are 20 billion THINGS are projected to connect to the Internet.
IoT is the web of real-life objects that contain embedded technology to exchange information over the Internet and observe or interact with their internal states and external environment.
Technologies that are closely relative to Internet of Things :
- Machine-to-Machine(M2M) Communication
As the name states, M2M communication is the Interaction between machines and devices. In these Interactions, Machines and Devices exchange information through a cloud infrastructure
M2M proposes the means for managing devices and device communication while gathering data from connected machines a
M2M is a part of IoT and has a prominent place in IoT standards. However, IoT possesses vast scope than M2M. Since, M2M comprises a big range of interactions, which includes interaction between devices and things, things and people, things and people with the application.
Considering a developer’s view, the Web of Things enables access and control over IoT components and applications of mainstream modern web technologies.
The WoT is a trial to structure the world of Web tools and protocols which were then used in frameworks for connecting any machine, device, and thing to the Web.
IoT Connectivity Terminologies:
- LAN IoT: short-range communication, local communication, may or may not be connected to the internet, building or companywide.
- WAN IoT: Connects to the internet, Connection of various local networks, Geographical wide.
- NODE IoT: Node to Node Connected in LAN via IoT LAN, sometimes connected to the internet through WAN directly.
- GATEWAY IoT: Router connected LAN network to WAN, forwards packets between LAN and WAN on the IP layer.
- PROXY IoT: Active application layer functions are performed between IoT Nodes and other entities.
Multi-Homing is a processable mechanism in which a machine is configured with multiple networks interface and IP addresses.
It is useful to get a better and stable internet connection without sacrificing the ultimate performance.
In the case of small IoT LANs, where allocating address prefixes is not that easy and possible. Two Approaches are taken into consideration:
Proxy Based Approach: used to manage more than one IP address and map them to link-local addresses.
Gateway Based Approach: used for allotting link-local addresses to the node under it.
Note: The Study of Multi-Homing is still under moderation in IEFT.
The Industrial Internet of Things is considered as the extension of the Internet of Things which works in Industrial sectors and applications.
IIoT is taken as smart sensors, actuators, instruments, and other devices networked together with machines’ industrial activities.
This extension of IoT is enabled by technologies like cybersecurity, cloud computing, Machine-to-Machine, advanced robotics, big data, RFID technology, and some more.
Modern-day Applications of IoT:
- Smart Parking
- Smartphone Detection
- Traffic Congestion
- Smart Grid
- Radiations Level
- Intelligent Shopping Application
- Forest Fire Detection
- Water Leakages